lunedì 7 marzo 2011

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السلام عليكم و رحمة الله و بركاته




الى زواري الكرام


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ونبدأ على بركة الله



انشاء حول Abstract



انشاء حول woman and power



انشاء حول humor



انشاء حول Sustainable development



انشاء حول Humain rights



انشاء حول brain drain



انشاء حول Cultural values



انشاء حول Science, and technology



internet انشاء حول

Abstract


Access to information in developing countries is limited. There are multiple reasons for this ranging from economic, social , cultural and political factors to lack of an adequate infrastructure that guarantees information flows within the country. In general, national governments have been in a priviledged position in most developing countries when it



woman and power

It's true that Islam gave a great importance to woman in society and she is much more naturally than man. The modern world gave woman more opportunities, today she is equal with man in many fields, and for example she can participate in the political fields she can vote.

Morocco has tried to reconcile the law of the Koran with the universal human rights laid down in the country’s Constitution. It has resulted in two sets of legislation - one that is open and liberal for matters relating to public law, and another that is closed when it comes to applying private law .

We can say that woman play the major role in her society .the only way to

humor

I think that the best things to relief from stress is to watch some sitcoms or hear something funny like jokes …person should develop his sense of humor and he should be cool , Comic and optimistic, because some expert of mental .health have noted that we can't imagine going through a day without laughter.

Humor will make every part of your life better.

It will help you trough difficult times and it will help you make the good times even letter, also i twill attract good people and good situations to you.

So cheer up J

Sustainable development

Sustainable development is a pattern of resource use that aims to meet human needs while preserving the natural environment so that these needs can be met not only in the present, but in the indefinite future. The term was used by the Brundtland Commission which coined what has become the most often-quoted definition of sustainable development as development that "meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs." [1]

The field of sustainable development can be conceptually broken into three constituent parts: environmental sustainability , economic sustainability

and social - political sustainability





Humain rights



The concept of human rights has existed under several names in European thought for many centuries, at least since the time of King John of England. After the king violated a number of ancient laws and customs by which England had been governed, his subjects forced him to sign the Magna Carta, or Great Charter, which enumerates a number of what later came to be thought of as human rights. Among them were the right of the church to be free from governmental interference, the rights of all free citizens to own and inherit property and be free from excessive taxes. It established the right of widows who owned property to choose not to remarry, and established principles of due process and equality before the law. It also contained provisions forbidding bribery and official misconduct.

The political and religious traditions in other parts of the world also proclaimed what have come to be called human rights, calling on rulers to rule justly and compassionately, and delineating limits on their power over the lives, property, and activities of their citizens.

In the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries in Europe several philosophers proposed the concept of "natural rights," rights belonging to a person by nature and because he was a human being, not by virtue of his citizenship in a particular country or membership in a particular religious or ethnic group. This concept was vigorously debated and rejected by some philosophers as baseless. Others saw it as a formulation of the underlying principle on which all ideas of citizens' rights and political and religious liberty were based.

In the late 1700s two revolutions occurred which drew heavily on this concept. In 1776 most of the British colonies in North America proclaimed their independence from the British Empire in a document which still stirs feelings, and debate, the U.S. Declaration of Independence





brain drain



The migration of skilled individuals from developing countries has typically been considered to be costly for the sending country , due to lost investments in education, high fiscal costs and labour market distortions. Economic theory, however, raises the possibility of a beneficial brain drain primarily through improved incentives to acquire human capital. Our survey of empirical and theoretical work shows under what circumstances a developing country can benefit from skilled migration. It argues that the sectoral aspects of migration and screening of migrants in the receiving country are of major importance in determining the welfare implications of the brain drain. These issues, as well as the size of the sending country, duration of migration and the effect of diaspora populations, should be addressed in future empirical work on skilled migration



Cultural values

Groups, societies, or cultures have values that are largely shared by their members. The values identify those objects, conditions or characteristics that members of the society consider important; that is, valuable. In the United States, for example, values might include material comfort, wealth, competition, individualism or religiosity. The values of a society can often be identified by noting which people receive honor or respect. In the US, for example, professional athletes are more highly honored than college professors, in part because the society values physical activity and competitiveness more than mental activity and education. Surveys show that voters in the United States would be reluctant to elect an atheist as a president, suggesting that belief in God is a value.

Values are related to the norms of a culture, but they are more general and abstract than norms. Norms are rules for behavior in specific situations, while values identify what should be judged as good or bad. Flying the national flag on a holiday is a norm, but it reflects the value of patriotism. Wearing dark clothing and appearing solemn are normative behaviors at a funeral. They reflect the values of respect and support of friends and family.

Members take part in a culture even if each member's personal values do not entirely agree with some of the normative values sanctioned in the culture. This reflects an individual's ability to synthesize and extract aspects valuable to them from the multiple subcultures they belong to.

If a group member expresses a value that is in serious conflict with the group's norms, the group's authority may carry out various ways of encouraging conformity or stigmatizing the non-conforming behavior of its members. For example, imprisonment can result from conflict with social norms that have been established as law



Science, and technology



The distinction between science, and technology is not always clear. Science is the reasoned investigation or study of phenomena, aimed at discovering enduring principles among elements of the phenomenal world by employing formal techniques such as the scientific method. Technologies are not usually exclusively products of science, because they have to satisfy requirements such as utility, usability and safety.

Technology is often a consequence of science and engineering — although technology as a human activity precedes the two fields. For example, science might study the flow of electrons in electrical conductors, by using already-existing tools and knowledge. This new-found knowledge may then be used by engineers to create new tools and machines, such as semiconductors, computers, and other forms of advanced technology. In this sense, scientists and engineers may both be considered technologists; the three fields are often considered as one for the purposes of resefrch and

Reference



internet

The Internet is a worldwide, publicly accessible network ofinterconnected computer networks that transmit data by packet switching usingthe standard Internet Protocol (IP). It is a "network of networks" that consistsof millions of smaller domestic, academic, business, and government networks, which together carry various information and services, such as electronic mail, online chat, file transfer, and the interlinked web pages and other documents ofthe world wide web.

The USSR's launch of Sputnik spurred the United States tocreate the Advanced Research Projects Agency, known as ARPA, in February 1958 toregain a technological lead.[1][2] ARPA created the Information ProcessingTechnology Office (IPTO) to further the research of the Semi Automatic GroundEnvironment (SAGE) program, which had networked country-wide radar systemstogether for the first time. J. C. R. Licklider was selected to head the IPTO, and saw universal networking as a potential unifying humanrevolution.

Licklider had moved from the Psycho-Acoustic Laboratory atHarvard University to MIT in 1950, after becoming interested in informationtechnology. At MIT, he served on a committee that established Lincoln Laboratoryand worked on the SAGE project. In 1957 he became a Vice President at BBN, wherehe bought the first production PDP-1 computer and conducted the first publicdemonstration of time-sharing.

At the IPTO, Licklider recruited LawrenceRoberts to head a project to implement a network, and Roberts based thetechnology on the work of Paul Baran who had written an exhaustive study for theU.S. Air Force that recommended packet switching (as opposed to circuitswitching) to make a network highly robust and survivable. After much work, thefirst node went live at UCLA on October 29, 1969 on what would be called theARPANET, one of the "eve" networks of today's Internet. Following on from this, the British Post Office, Western Union International and Tymnet collaborated tocreate the first international packet switched network, referred to as theInternational Packet Switched Service (IPSS), in 1978. This network grew fromEurope and the US to cover Canada, Hong Kong and Australia by 1981.

The firstTCP/IP-wide area network was operational by January 1, 1983, when the UnitedStates' National Science Foundation (NSF) constructed a university networkbackbone that would later become the NSFNet.

It was then followed by theopening of the network to commercial interests in 1985. Important, separatenetworks that offered gateways into, then later merged with, the NSFNet includeUsenet, BITNET and the various commercial and educational networks, such asX.25, Compuserve and JANET. Telenet (later called Sprintnet) was a largeprivately-funded national computer network with free dial-up access in citiesthroughout the U.S. that had been in operation since the 1970s. This networkeventually merged with the others in the 1990s as the TCP/IP protocol becameincreasingly popular. The ability of TCP/IP to work over these pre-existingcommunication networks, especially the international X.25 IPSS network, allowedfor a great ease of growth. Use of the term "Internet" to describe a singleglobal TCP/IP network originated around thistime.











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